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Embedded computing systems are special-purpose computer systems designed for applications to perform a specific task. With enormous advancements in technology, embedded system applications range from toys to avionics. The design of these systems involve challenging metrics out which performance and power form the most crucial ones. Recent advancements in semiconductor technology have made power consumption also a limiting factor for embedded system design. SRAM being faster than the DRAM, cache memory comprising of SRAM is configured between the CPU and the main memory. The CPU can access the main memory (DRAM) only via the cache memory. Cache memories are employed in all the computing applications along with the processors. The size of cache allowed for inclusion on a chip is limited by the large physical size and large power consumption of the SRAM cells used in cache memory. Hence, its effective configuration for small size and low power consumption is very crucial in embedded system design. An optimal cache configuration technique is presented for the effective reduction of size and high performance. It is also shown that not only the memory module, but also the bus interconnect
Static random-access memory (SRAM) continues to be a critical component across a wide range of microelectronics applications from consumer wireless to high-end workstation and microprocessor applications. For almost all fields of applications, semiconductor memory has been a key enabling technology. It is forecasted that embedded memory in SOC designs will cover up to 90% of the total chip area. A representative example is the use of cache memory in microprocessors. The operational speed could be significantly improved by the application of on-chip cache memory Semiconductor memory arrays capable of storing large quantities of digital information are essential to all digital systems. The ever-increasing demand for larger data storage capacity has driven the fabrication technology and memory development toward more compact design rules and, consequently, toward higher storage densities. This book deals with design of low power static random-access memory cells and peripheral circuits for standalone RAMs, in 350nm focusing on stable operation and reduced leakage current and power dissipation in standby and active modes.
In modern era of computing every one wants a faster computing system. We can make it faster by improving hardware or by improving system software. Improving hardware may increase the cost of system so we can work on efficient software to boost the performance. Efficient Cache Replacement policy can improve the performance of operating system. In this book we have discussed in about memory hierarchy and cache replacement policy. In last section we have introduce a new replacement policy which works better than available one. We have include supporting work also. We have worked on combination of weight and rank parameter and concept of using extra buffer to increase hit ratio.
Cache coherency and memory consistency are of the most decisive and challenging issues in the design of shared-memory multi-core systems that influence both the correctness and performance of parallel programs. In this book, we identify and analyze the problem of designing a coherent/consistent memory subsystem in general and then focus on FPGA-based multi-core embedded systems containing general purpose CPU's and dedicated hardware accelerators. We narrow down the range of the problem by targeting only the stream-based applications and developing dedicated application-specific solutions. A flexible Windowed-FIFO communication pattern is proposed to be used by the parallel programs being run on the multi-core system. The software APIs for the FPGA platform are implemented and tested, a customized streaming cache memory is designed, implemented and tested based on the proposed communication pattern and in the end, example embedded systems are developed and tested on the FPGA platform to prove the correct functionality of the APIs, the cache memory and the coherent data communication between the cores.
Chip MultiProcessors (CMPs) are becoming the de facto hardware architecture over a range of computing platforms. According to Moore's law, the number of cores in CMPs is expected to keep growing as transistor density continues to shrink. As the number of cores increases, the complexity and trade-offs of current CMP design shift towards the uncore part of the chip. In this book, we discuss several approaches to improve the performance and energy efficiency of uncore components at major levels of the uncore subsytem such as the Last Level Cache (LLC) and the interconnect.
In today’s fast paced technology race there are many aspects of a computer that can be improved upon. Memory is an integral part of how a computer works and involves many different complex levels of hierarchy. Semiconductor memory is an electronic data storage device often used as computer memory, implemented on semiconductor-basis integrated circuits. It is made in many different types and technologies. A simple yet efficient method is presented to explore the design space for memory synthesis which deals with single-port memory synthesis according to the design constraints. The application of this method to different synthesis examples is illustrated and demonstrated. With suitable modifications, the technique could be applied to multiport memory synthesis in which the maximum number of read ports is different from the maximum number of write ports. Memory is designed in VHDL to produce the RTL schematic of the desired circuit. After that, the generated schematic can be verified using simulation software which shows the waveforms of inputs and outputs of the circuit after generating the appropriate testbench. All the chapters start with a brief explanation of design stage.
This book covers the design and improvement of single and multistage production systems. Following the standard production planning and scheduling decision hierarchy, it describes the inputs and outputs at each level of the decision hierarchy and one or more decision approaches. The assumptions leading to each approach are included along with the details of the model and the corresponding solution. Modern system concepts and the engineering methods for creating lean production systems are included.
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Ever since computer is invented, more powerful software have been developed, such as amazing PC applications, multithreading programs running in servers of major web sites, etc. These powerful software push hardware especially processor design to limit. Processor cache is key to system performance. Unlike hard drive and DRAM, which have seen quick growth in capacity in recent years, processor caches remain as several MBs due to expensive cost. Software are generally hurt by small cache size because of high cache miss rate. Data prefetching is a mechanism to efficiently reduce cache miss rate thus improve system performance. This book will give a complete introduction to data prefetching for processors, detailed analysis of cache miss pattern of modern benchmarks, and describe innovative, advanced data prefetching designs.
Caching is primarily a memory performance optimization technique. In the presence of multiple copies of cached values, as in a multiprocessor system, issues of correctness and consistency arise, for which a cache coherence mechanism provides a solution. In this thesis, instead of using globally controlled directory based method, an alternate way is suggested, in which cache coherence is locally directed by individual processor. For this, compiler support in the form of program annotation is provided, which helps identify the cohrence boundary at run-time. A hardware support in the form of small buffer with 8 entry 4 way associative structure is devised for carrying out self-invalidation and update of memory. Performance evaluation of the proposed scheme using SPLASH-2 benchmark suite on RSIM simulator shows significant speed-up - a maximum of 4.31 - over directory based approach.
This project contains advanced feature of memory design, which is Content Addressable memory(CAM). This design is mainly used for improving performance and speed of the design. It uses NAND type and NOR type CAM design for improving performance and speed of the design. By combining both both NAND and NOR type design, a HYBRID cam design has been designed to improve performance and speed of the design.
Phase Change Memory(PCM) is a new form of Non-volatile memory that has advantages like read access almost as close to a DRAM, write speed about 100 times faster than traditional hard disks and flash SSD, and cell density about 10 times better than any kind of storage devices available today. With these advantages, it is feasible that PCM could be the future of data storage as it has the potential to replace both secondary storage and main memory. In this thesis, we study the current status of PCM in the memory hierarchy, its characteristics , advantages and challenges in implementing the technology. Specifically, we study how the byte-writeable PCM can be used as a buffer for flash SSD to improve its write efficiency. Then in the second part, we study how traditional relational database management should be altered for a database completely implemented in PCM. Specifically, we study this effect by choosing hash-join algorithm. The experiments are carried out in a simulated environment, by modifying a DRAM to act as a PCM. We use postgreSQL database for relational database experiment. The results show that PCM has many benefits in the current memory hierarchy.
This book aimed to develop methods and tools for supporting maintenance management system for transportation. This is done by using Multicriteria Decision Making Process techniques. Also analytic hierarchy process (AHP) were applied to evaluate the techniques that are used for maintaining the road pavements. Software named AHPM (Analytic Hierarchy Process Model) was developed using MATLAB for flexible pavement. The first step in the AHP procedure is to decompose the decision problem into a hierarchy that consists of the most important elements of the decision problem. In developing a hierarchy identified the objective, factors and alternatives. The hierarchy model of a decision problem is the objective of the decision at the top level and then descends downwards lower level of decision factors until the level of attributes is reached. Each level is linked to the next higher level.