dna fingerprinting of cyprinid fish species of iraqi inland watersкупить не дорого в нашем интернет магазине:
Mesopotamia was the cradle of life. As It characterized with ecosystem diversity, it has specific diversity of fishes specially those they belong to family Cyprinidae. All the previous studies to discriminate among Cyprinidae members particularly the most similar species of genus Barbus followed traditional methods such as biometry, Osteology and protein electrophoresis. The present study included the most common six Barbus species belong to the subfamily Cyprininae: B. xanthopterus, B. kersin, B. barbulus, B. grypus, B. Sharpeyi, B. luteus and Cyprinus carpio as a close relative from other genus belong to the same subfamily in addition to Aspius vorax as another species belong to sister subfamily Leuciscinae. This study is the first on DNA fingerprints of Mesopotamian cyprinid fishes using RAPD-PCR technique. It efficiently differentiates among these eight species, genetic diversity and phylogenetic tree. MtDNA cytb and 16SrRNA genes were used to confirm their classification to the genus and subfamily levels. One of the main goals of this work was to put DNA dependant Identity profile for the Mesopotamian cyprinid fish species and put baseline of molecular studies on Iraqi fishes
Human activities move many species out of their native ranges, where they establish and have substantial ecological effects on native communities. A group of invaders with particularly important ecological effects are crayfish. The large sphere of action for crayfish invaders are European inland waters, where native crayfish stock were depopulated in 19th century due to crayfish plague. Apart from plague, other negative factors include pollution of surface waters, habitat alterations, competition with non-native species, or predation. In accordance to native species conservation, the knowledge about crayfish invaders (distribution, life cycle, ecology) is important to assess their invasive potential and develop an effective management to suppress their spreading. Orconectes limosus is actually on of the the most distributed and actively spreading invasive crayfish in Europe.
Pearl was discovered by man of the earliest civilization even before 3500 B.C. Hence from early civilization, pearl is considered as one of the precious gem obtained mainly from water. The major Indian pearl producing freshwater species are Lamellidens corrianus, Lamellidens marginallis, Perreysia corrugate. These species are widely distributed in ponds and large bodies of perennial waters of Indian subcontinent. A rapid progress has been made in freshwater pearl culture. Biochemical and molecular markers like Isozymes, RFLPs, RAPDs, Microarrays and DNA sequences help in investigating genetic variation, inbreeding, parentage assignments, species and strain identification and construction of high resolution genetic maps of important aquaculture species. An attempt is made to study the intra and inter genetic similarities/ variations in the bivalve L. corrianus from various water bodies using some of the above mentioned markers- Isozymes, RAPD and DNA sequences.
Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is one of the leading crops in the world. Molecular characterization and molecular marker assisted selection in sugarcane breeding might be a tool for improvement of this crop can assist in increasing sugar production. Like many other plant species, sugarcane tissues contain high levels of polysaccharides and polyphenolic compounds, which present a major contamination problem during DNA purification. High-concentrations of polysaccharides, which co-purify with DNA in normal phenol-chloroform extractions and polyphenols covalently bind to DNA making it useless for most research applications. An rapid, efficient and easy DNA purification procedure for sugarcane is an urgent need in genome mapping and marker assisted selection (MAS) programs. In the present investigation an efficient and easy method was developed for isolation of high quality DNA from meristem cylinder in sugarcane. With the method developed high quality DNA isolation was possible without use of liquid nitrogen, tissue homogenizer and using a simple micro-centrifuge. Isolated DNA well performed for PCR amplification and DNA Fingerprinting using RAPD markers.
Fish is a source of cheap and valuable animal protein which contributes about 1 percent to the country's GDP. As far as factors affecting consumer preferences for Inland fish were concerned, the estimated model was correctly specified. The value of R2 was 0.67 which was highly significant. According to findings, consumption of fish was highly dependent on family size of the consumer, purchase price, and income of the consumer. As far as factors affecting prices of Inland fish were concerned, the estimated model was correctly specified. The value of R2 was 0.53 which was significant. According to findings prices of Inland fish were highly depended on skin condition and gills appearance of fish. It was also observed that mostly farmers faced the problems of poor infrastructure and delayed payments. So, there is a need to improve infrastructure, reduce commission fee and involvement of Govt. regulatory body for improving the marketing of fish in district Faisalabad.
Ethiopia has diverse wildlife populations which are comparable, species wise to that of other countries of east Africa. Inventory of the wildlife potential of the country indicates that there are 260 species and sub-species of mammals, 845 species of birds, 78 species of snakes, 54 species of amphibians and 101 species of fish. Among these 28 species of mammals, 28 species of birds, 3 species of snakes, 30 species of amphibian and 4 species of fish are endemic to the country. There are many problems associated with the conservation of the park, due to the current extensive wildlife management system in almost all the national parks.
Lake Victoria ecosystem has been undergoing several changes since the 1920s as a result of eutrophication and since the 1950s as a result of introduced fish species like Nile perch (Lates niloticus). Because of these changes, it is believed that the ecology and biology of the indigenous fish species of Lake Victoria have changed as well. One of the indigenous fish species of Lake Victoria is Rastrineobola argentea (Dagaa). In contrast to other fish species of Lake Victoria, information on the food items and feeding habits (selectivity) of Dagaa is limited. The main aim of this study was to find out the major food items of Dagaa, to assess whether Dagaa feeds selectively and how Dagaa and its preys are distributed spatially in Mwanza Gulf- Lake Victoria. Dagaa‘s dietary preferences were determined using the modified Ivlev electivity index from the expression (Di = (ri-pi)/ ((ri+pi)-(2ripi))). Results indicated that, Cyclopoids dominated as the major food item for Dagaa and were selected while calanoids were avoided.
Phewa Lake is rich in fish diversity including a large number of indigenous fish species. Besides it, it has socio-cultural and economic importance. The scientific research works on indigenous fishes and socio-economic condition of local fisher community are very scanty in Phewa Lake. I hope The present study helps to motivate in the conservation of the indigenous fish species and provides the concerned people to raise the economic status of fisher community..More the selling of this book more will be the work in the field of conservation of fish species and helps in launching the programme to raise the economic status of fisher community.Thanks all of you who support conservation of fish species by reading this book.
DNA typing of non-human DNA is a fast developing area of research and professional practice. The application of DNA typing in wildlife forensic science is one of these prime uses of DNA typing and is gaining increasing profile. The use of DNA profiling in wildlife forensic science falls into two broad areas: species testing and genetic linkage. Species testing answers the question ‘what species is this?’ and genetic linkage answers the question ‘did these two samples come from the same organism or population?’ Wildlife DNA Analysis: Applications in Forensic Science provides an accessible introduction to both of these key areas. Clearly structured throughout, the introduction highlights the different types of crime where these techniques are regularly used. This chapter includes a discussion as to who performs forensic wildlife examinations, the standardisation and validation of methods, and the role of the expert witness in this type of alleged crime. This is followed by a detailed section on the science behind DNA typing including the problems in isolating DNA from trace material and subsequent genetic analysis are also covered. The book then undertakes a comprehensive review of species testing using DNA, including a step-by-step guide to sequence comparisons. A comparison of the different markers used in species testing highlights the criteria for a genetic marker. A full set of case histories illustrates the use of the different markers used. The book details the use of genetic markers to link two or more hairs/feather/leaves/needles to the same individual organism and the software used in population assignment. The problems and possibilities in isolating markers, along with the construction of allele databases are discussed in this chapter. The book concludes with evaluation and reporting of genetic evidence in wildlife forensic science illustrated by examples of witness statements. •An accessible introduction to this fast developing area of research within forensic science •Case studies throughout to link theory and practice and to highlight the use of DNA testing in species testing. •Covers both crimes against wildlife and offences where wildlife can provide vital evidence •Assumes only a basic background knowledge of DNA •Includes a comprehensive review of species testing using DNA, including a step-by-step guide to sequence comparisons
India has distinction of being one of the second largest producers of fish in the world and increasingly contributing to the nutritional security of the country. The present production of fish and shellfish from capture fisheries and aquaculture is around 8.0 million tonnes. The inland fishery resources of the country comprise of rivers & canals, reservoirs, tanks & ponds, estuaries, brackish water lakes, back waters, floodplain lakes(oxbow lake) etc. India is bestowed with vast marine resources in terms of 8,129 km long coastline, 0.53 million sq km of continental shelf and 2.02 million sq km of exclusive economic zone. The marine fisheries of India has been playing a pivotal role in meeting the demands of fish over the years.
Harmful algal blooms (HABs), for which the causative organism is Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum, are a frequent phenomenon in the coastal waters of tropical regions. The species produces a paralytic shellfish toxin which has been linked to neurological symptoms and human fatalities. The identification of the causal species Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum in field samples is difficult because the bloom does not discolor the water and the species occur in low cell densities. Identification and enumeration of the harmful algae using light microscopy is time-consuming and tedious when detecting the target species among the complex natural communities in the sample. Therefore, development of a DNA probe for specific HAB species can assist in rapid identification, which contributes to the early detection of toxic blooms.
Lake Tana have about 15 unique fish species of Cyprinidae family which is endemic to our planet. Unfortunately these fish species face danger of extinction due to human activities at their breeding ground. In order to tackle the incoming danger artificial breeding of these unique species will be at stake. So this research carried on as a prerequisite which temperature regime is preferable by the fish for artificial breeding and restocking of the natural system of the lake.
Responsible and sustainable aquaculture in Angola is one of the most important objectives of the government as means increasing food security and economic development. This study provides clear understanding of the current status of aquaculture in Angola. The study evaluated 11 native freshwater species, and selected as suitable for inland aquaculture in Angola. The evaluation process was carried out using three different phases. However, there is a lack of information regarding biological characteristic of most evaluated species. Clarias gariepinus, Oreochromis andersonii and Tilapia rendalli were selected as the best species for inland aquaculture. Suitable areas for aquaculture in Malange province of Angola were identified. Critical constraints in place and the main factors for successful of aquaculture operation including social, economic, production technology as well as environmental aspects were considered for the future aquaculture development. The inland aquaculture checklist for Angola including, site selection, species source, business planning, environmental impact assessment and aquaculture licensing requirements was developed.
Identification of Penicillium species was not easy and needed accurate and expertise mycologist. Three different species, namely; P.hordei (eight), P.roqueforti (eleven) and P.aurantiogresium (twenty nine) were subjected to polyphasic approach of four chemotaxonomical markers; volatile metabolite (VM), fatty acid (FA) and secondary metabolite (SM) profiles as well as the random amplified polymorphic DNA with the polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) fingerprinting pattern. The results revealed the succession of all the investigated markers using one growth medium (YES) to identify and differentiate between the representatives of the three tested species (intraspecifically) excepted in case of volatile metabolite (VM) profile with P.hordei and P.roqueforti. Other relations between type strains could be read from the dendrograms and the efficient classification showed the potential of this polyphasic approach identification system.
The species of Euphorbia have their own economic value and hence contribute to the floristic wealth of tropical and subtropical countries of the world. This genus is also well reputed for the production of valuable secondary metabolites like alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenes in nature. Local Euphorbia species are quite rich, and have not been studied yet. There are about 44 species of Euphorbia in Iraqi flora, and more than four species just in University of Baghdad Campus in Jadiriyah.