dna fingerprinting of trees and genetic diversity of syzygium cuminiкупить не дорого в нашем интернет магазине:
The simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers analysis was done to determine the allelic diversity and relationship among 23 rice varieties developed by Dr, B. S. K. K. V. Dapoli. A total of 35 SSR primer pairs were polymorphic and generated 184 alleles with an average of 5.26 alleles per primer pair. The number of alleles amplified for each primer pair ranged from 2 to 8. The polymorphic information content (PIC) values of each primer pair ranged from 0.23 to 0.78 with an average of 0.58. The UPGMA grouped 23 rice varieties into two main clusters which were further divided into two sub-clusters. The first major cluster consists of seven released rice varieties and 16 varieties form second major cluster. Most of the closely related cultivars were identified with the fingerprinting based on the polymorphic SSR primer pairs. The results could be useful for resolving the problem that arises in seed certification programme as well as the determination of genetic diversity of the rice varieties very quickly. Similarly it will protect the varieties from commercial exploitation by others because of its uniqueness in amplification pattern.
Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is one of the leading crops in the world. Molecular characterization and molecular marker assisted selection in sugarcane breeding might be a tool for improvement of this crop can assist in increasing sugar production. Like many other plant species, sugarcane tissues contain high levels of polysaccharides and polyphenolic compounds, which present a major contamination problem during DNA purification. High-concentrations of polysaccharides, which co-purify with DNA in normal phenol-chloroform extractions and polyphenols covalently bind to DNA making it useless for most research applications. An rapid, efficient and easy DNA purification procedure for sugarcane is an urgent need in genome mapping and marker assisted selection (MAS) programs. In the present investigation an efficient and easy method was developed for isolation of high quality DNA from meristem cylinder in sugarcane. With the method developed high quality DNA isolation was possible without use of liquid nitrogen, tissue homogenizer and using a simple micro-centrifuge. Isolated DNA well performed for PCR amplification and DNA Fingerprinting using RAPD markers.
Taro (Colocacia esculenta (L.) Schott) is a staple for millions of people in the world. It is originated in the tropical areas of Southeast and South Asia and the Pacific Islands and arrived in the east coast of Africa over 2000 years ago. Today, taro is pan-tropical in its distribution and cultivation; the largest area of cultivation and production is in West Africa, whereas the greatest intensity of its cultivation and contribution to the diet occurs in the tropical and subtropical Africa. There is a wide range of genetic diversity in the country for taro In Ethiopia. However, previous to this work there is no any effort so far done with regard to the diversity study and its genetic conservation. Hence carefully designed programs of collection and conservation of genetic resources with established national priority is of the paramount importance this project is essential at this point in time to identify genetic diversity of the crop so as to conserve for future utilization. Diversity Analysis based on Morphological characterization and evaluation of taro genotypes in Ethiopia is illustrated in this book.
Chillies, the green or dried ripe fruits of pungent forms of Capsicum species, are one of the important members of the family Solanaceae. It is endowed with a multitude at fruit forms, colours and sizes. In spite of its high nutritive value, well acceptability among growers and consumers and wide range of available genetic variability we are still lagging behind to exploit its full production potentiality. This book is detailed and single source coverage of the germplasm diversity, characterization and nature of gene action for yield and other important attributes of chilli for identification of good combiners, as well as framing of the breeding approach for the genetic improvement of such characters. The study should be useful to the researchers, academicians and students of agriculture and horticulture.
This study compare the effect of the slope direction of genetic variation and morphological diversity of male and female Juniperus polycarpos and effect of slope position of genetic variation in Juniperus polycarpos in Chahar Bagh habitat. For this study, samples of branches and scales were done two years of growth. Immediately, the samples were prepared extracts. Quantitative and qualitative studies of the peroxidase activity were measured using a spectrophotometer, poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and morphological evaluation was performed using Binoculars. The results showed that, compared the branch and scale, scales has more variety.The results showed that, compared organs scales with branches,scale has a greater variety of branch. The results morphological marker are also accordance with isozyme markers. But the diversity of isozyme markers showed more morphological markers.Eastern slopes and back slopes and male trees were more diverse.
This study is based on the idea :Development of Desi Sarson from Brassica Campestris:. The indegenious germplams of Brassica Campestris was improved through modern molecular and conventional breeding techniques. In conventional breeding the Brassica campestris cultivars were crossed with Brassica napus varieties and the offsprings were then evaulated for genetic diversity through molecular (RAPD and SSR) markers.
Assessment of genetic diversity and identification of superior genotypes are the basic objectives of any crop improvement program. Earlier morphological and isozyme markers were used to assess the diversity, but these traits had an environmental influence. The recently developed molecular marker technology has opened up new vistas for the assessment of genetic diversity among genotypes at molecular level. In the present investigation, two multiloci markers viz., RAPD (25 primers), ISSR (11 primers) and one single locus marker viz., SSR (10 primer pairs) were used to assess the genetic diversity among 32 genotypes of pigeonpea, which included 23 cultivars and nine wild relatives. Diversity analysis was done with the help of statistics such as marker index, mean marker index, polymorphism information content, principal component analysis and dendrogram. The present study clearly elucidated the superiority of ISSR markers for genetic diversity studies over RAPD and SSR markers.
Information on the extent and pattern of genetic variability in a population, interrelationship among different agronomic characters and knowledge of the naturally occurring diversity are essential to design breeding strategies in crop improvement. To generate such information 12 types of chickpea genotypes were tested in randomized complete block design under irrigation condition at Maichew Agricultural Technical and Vocational Educational and Training College. The collected data subjected to the analysis of variance and phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variations, heritability in the broad sense and genetic advance, genotypic and phenotypic correlations and path analysis, cluster analysis; genetic divergence analysis, principal component analysis and diversity index analysis was computed.
DNA barcode assisted Molecular Taxonomy for species identification aided us to employee this technique in discrimination of fishes from Narmada river basin, one of the longest river of India. During our study we found high genetic diversity between individuals isolated by barriers (dams/waterfalls) this facilities us to study, how barriers contribute to the fragmentation of the genetic structure in the fish communities. This study serves as first report of its kind for river system on the Indian subcontinent.
Ethiopia considered as the secondary center of genetic diversity in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The high genetic diversity observed in Ethiopian barley landraces was due to its diverse environmental and soil condition. Barley landraces from Ethiopia used as a source of genes for resistant to disease and agronomic traits all over the world. International research center such as ICARDA also used Ethiopian germplasms in their breeding program to developed different cultivars well adapted to the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In any breeding program, the study of the existing genetic diversity within their base population is a key factor for their success. Therefore, understanding the genetic architecture of the base population related to diversity and understanding the interrelationship of yield components will be crucial. It helps to design appropriate crossing program by selecting parents with divergent genetic background that meet the breeding objective. It is also important to develop core collection. So it is valuable reference for the researchers, conservation specialists, development workers, graduate and undergraduate students.
Rice, Oryza sativa (2n=24) belonging to the family Graminae is the staple food for one third of the world’s population and occupies almost one-fifth of the total land area covered under cereals. Genetic diversity plays an important role in plant breeding because hybrids between lines of diverse origin generally display a greater heterosis than those between closely related strains. PCR-based Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used for assessing genetic diversity and relationships among different rice genotypes. Amplification with RAPD primers produced 46 scorable bands of which 95.65% were polymorphic. The intra and inter-genotype's similarity indices were calculated. Highest genetic distance was found between IR29 and Binadhan-5 and they remain in different cluster. The genotypes remain in different cluster, are much more diverse and their genetic distance will be higher. Thus, RAPD markers offer a potentially simple, rapid and reliable method to evaluate genetic diversity analysis in rice genotypes and to find out diversified parental stocks or traits for conservation which need to be used in future to develop new desirable traits or genotypes.
Genetic diversity of Karanja accessions were evaluated with Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) markers. In present study low level of genetic diversity was observed among the karanj genotypes. Average RPI, PIC and MI value for RAPD primers were 2.09, 0.25 and 18.06 respectively; while for ISSR marker it was 0.66, 0.08 and 4.48 respectively. Genetic diversity analysis by Isozyme marker viz., POX (peroxidase), PPO (polyphenol oxidase ), EST (esterase) and SOD(superoxide dismutase) scores total 19 isozyme loci in 30 accessions of Karanja. Highest loci was scored by PPO (6 loci) followed by POX (5 loci) while 4 loci scored by SOD and EST. Highest polymorphism and highest number of polymorphic loci was shown by PPO isozyme (83.33%) while lowest polymorphism and lowest number of polymorphic loci was shown by SOD isozyme (50 %). In morphological characterization, in terms of height, tallest tree and average longest branch was recorded by NAUK-15 and NAUK-16 respectively. Average highest number of branches and largest leaflet width was recorded by NAUK-9 while longest leaflet length recorded by NAUK-1.
Marula, Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra is a multipurpose drought tolerant tree, growing from Senegal and South Sudan in the North to Northern Namibia and South Africa in the South. Marula, like many indigenous trees in the developing world, has enormous economic potential. Commercialization and export of marula products will demand rapid multiplication of superior quality trees. In vitro propagation especially of wild harvested tree material accelerates multiplication of selected trees for increased production efficiencies and more uniform qualities of derived products. Genetic transformation provides additional means to optimize, study and understand pathways in a subtropical African fruit tree. This book is a must-have resource to all those who embark on micropropagation and genetic transformation of new indigenous tree species. It provides step by step protocols for micropropagation and genetic transformation of the drought tolerant marula tree and direct relevance to mango, pistachio, cashew of the mango family as well as other subtropical and indigenous trees. This book is read by students and professionals in the field of tree tissue culture and biotechnology.
Tef (Eragrostis tef [Zucc.] Trotter) is an indigenous staple cereal crop of Ethiopia that has many agronomic and nutritional merits. It is a gluten free cereal and an option for people allergic to wheat products. However, information on the genetic diversity of tef genotypes is very scant and that of recently released varieties is lacking. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the extent of genetic diversity and association of characters among traits of released tef varieties. Data were collected on quantitative and qualitative traits of tef and the analysis of variance has shown a highly (P
Maize (Zea mays L.) is now a major important cereal crop in the world, and is a multipurpose crop. It belongs to tribe Maydeae of the Poaceae (Gramineae) grass family, and is the only cultivated species in its genus. Phenotype is a result of genotype and environmental interaction. Therefore, assessment of desired genotypes is highly dependent on proper environmental conditions. A biotic stresses (particularly drought, high temperature, salinity and others) generally reduce crop productivity. These stresses are location-specific, exhibiting variation in frequency, intensity, and duration. Stresses can occur at any stage of plant growth and development. Genetic diversity is the basis of successful crop improvement and can be estimated by different methods, which include the use of agronomic characterization and DNA fingerprinting. One of the most widely used applications of the RAPDs technique is the identification of markers linked to traits of interest without the necessity of mapping the entire genome.