dna fingerprinting of trees and genetic diversity of syzygium cuminiкупить не дорого в нашем интернет магазине:
The genetic diversity of 25 improved varieties and four traditional varieties were characterized using a set of 20 well chosen and polymorphic microsatellite (SSR) primer pairs. The SSR markers used were polymorphic (100.0%) and generated the reliable information about the relatedness of the varieties. High values of polymorphism obtained in the characterization were attributed to hypervariability of the microsatellite markers. Among the popular varieties, the mean genetic similarity of 0.38 was observed indicating the wide diversity of the popular varieties. Cluster analysis based on 87 SSR marker alleles grouped 29 genotypes into two major clusters. The first major cluster comprised 9 genotypes of traditional varieties and early improved varieties. The second major cluster consisted of 20 improved varieties of complex pedigree and several recombination events. Principal component analysis revealed four clusters, out of which one cluster included seven genotypes from rainfed shallow land ecology suggesting the grouping was based on physiological traits. Unique alleles were generated for 14 varieties, which can be used as molecular tags.
Nowadays,detection of a single-base polymorphism is thought to be the key for diagnosis of about 400 genetic diseases and,realization of personalized medicine in order to develop therapeutics.The other hand,the integration of new emerging nanomaterials(graphene)with sensors and devices have revealed an enormous potential for the future application of highly sensitive and selective DNA biosensors.All these approaches open up the routes for genetic researchers to understand the progression and early screening of diseases,or forensic analysis by tailoring the electrical properties of graphene,which make the controlled design of these sensors essential.In this research study, numerical model of the graphene-based liquid-gated sensors with DNA sensing application is developed to help in understanding the sensing mechanism of these sensors which is the matter of dispute these days.The results are compared with the experimental work and an acceptable agreement is observed. We found that numerical modeling needs optimization to be closer to the realistic results.So, particle swarm optimization technique is used to achieve a more accurate and reliable model for DNA hybridization detection.
Soybean is recognized as one of the most important grain legume in the world. It is also an important source of oil and protein. Therefore, thousands of breeding lines and hundreds of elite cultivars are developed yearly in soybean hybridization programmes over the world, increasing genetic uniformity in the frame of soybean. To widen the genetic basis of uniformity of soybean germplasm, new sources of genetic variation must introduce. To do this, criteria for parental stock selection need to be considered not only by agronomic value, but also from the point of view of their genetic dissimilarity. Therefore, the evaluation of genetic variation in soybean is a very important task not only for population genetics but also for plant breeders. The genetic variation can be analyzed by agronomic and biochemical traits, and molecular marker polymorphisms. Utilization of exotic germplasm for characteristics such as disease resistance or agronomic traits is the ultimate goal of assessing genetic diversity in plant crops including soybean. Particularly, we except to face in future new plant diseases or pests, climatic change due to the greenhouse effect, and so forth.
The genus Trichoderma contains species that are of vast economic importance owing to their production of industrial enzymes (cellulose and hemi-cellulose), antibiotics and their ability to act as biological control agents (BCA) against plant pathogens. Identification of Trichoderma isolates at the species level has proved difficult due to the degree of morphological similarities. Correct identification of Trichoderma spp.is also important from commercial point of view as several traits are species specific. Molecular methods have recently been introduced into Trichoderma taxonomy with revision of sections. In the present study Random Amplified Ploymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique is used for the identification and assessment of genetic diversity among Trichoderma strains. Results revealed that genomic variability was found to be in the range of 50% - 100% among the isolates.
Mathematics makes possible arrangement and analysis of human DNA Statistical model play a significant role in mapping and sequencing our DNA.This reasearch present the fusion of biology and Mathematic which result a new era of molecular medicine,when the diagnosis ,treatment and presentation of disease individual will be specific and thus more successful and more accurate. The topology of DNA deals with the shape and geometry of complex structure The basic double helical structure of DNA providesa good deal of information about molecule.
Procaryotic structural components consist of macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, proteins, polysaccharides, phospholipids, or some combination thereof. The macromolecules are made up of primary subunits such as nucleotides, amino acids and sugars. It is the sequence in which the subunits are put together in the macromolecule, called the primary structure, that determines many of the properties that the macromolecule will have. Thus, the genetic code is determined by specific nucleotide base sequences in chromosomal DNA; the amino acid sequence in a protein determines the properties and function of the protein; and sequence of sugars in bacterial lipopolysaccharides determines unique cell wall properties for pathogens. The primary structure of a macromolecule will drive its function, and differences within the primary structure of biological macromolecules accounts for the immense diversity of life. A prokaryotic cell has five essential structural components: a nucleoid (DNA), ribosomes, cell membrane, cell wall, and some sort of surface layer, which may or may not be an inherent part of the wall.
Livelihoods and incomes of rural communities can be improved through growing, processing and marketing products from Indigenous Fruit Trees. However, until recently there has been limited quantitative evidence to support this. This book therefore presents findings of a project on Use and Conservation of Indigenous Tree Diversity for Improved Livelihoods in Uganda. It is aimed at students, researchers, government, NGOs, development agencies and practitioners in agroforestry.
Biscuits are very convenient and inexpensive food products and are becoming very popular among both rural and urban population especially among children as well as aged persons of India.In rural areas, malnutrition problem is severe in women and children because of traditional foods having low nutritive value. The nutritive value of foods particularly biscuits could be improved by protein supplementation. Biscuits from blend of maida, soy flour and jambul (Syzygium cumini) seed powder is protein rich and helps to solve the malnutrition problem in rural areas. It will help not only children’s health but also maintaining health of diabetic patients. There is an ever increasing demand for high protein biscuits for therapeutic value.This book therefore, provides helps to confectionery industries to develop a value added product by fortifying biscuits with soy flour and Jambul Seed Powder.
The field of Molecular Biology continues to attract and excite the students of all branches of life sciences, including biology and Medicine.The text covers two basic but very important aspects of Molecular Biology, DNA structure and replication. Some of the aspects of DNA structure which the beginners usually find difficult to follow and understand from the usual texts have been discussed and simplified. DNA replication in prokaryotic organisms has been explained. Eukaryotic DNA and its replication has also been covered. The text though appears comprehensive is basically meant for the beginners.
A field experiment was carried out at Navsari Agriculture University, Gujarat (India) for the estimation of Genetic Variability, Heritability, Genetic Advance, Correlation, Path Analysis and Genetic Divergence in 36 soybean genotypes obtained from different eco-geographical regions of India. The highest genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of variances were observed for plant height followed by seed yield per plant and pods per plant and it was lowest for days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, protein content and pod length. High heritability and genetic advance were observed for plant height, seed yield per plant and pods per plant. Seed yield per plant was positively and significantly correlated with plant height, pods per plant, days to 50 per cent flowering and days to maturity. Pod per plant recorded highest positive direct effect on seed yield per plant followed plant height. However, there was a substantial genetic diversity between the genotypes with D2 values ranging from 33.64 to 379.08. Thirty six genotypes were grouped into six clusters. The clustering pattern revealed that genetic diversity was not necessarily associated with geographical diversity in this crop.
Promoting a scholarly understanding of the psychology of social and cultural diversity in the early stages of 21st century, this volume encourages an in-depth appreciation of the value in diversity while directly addressing social intervention and policy implications. Offers, for the very first time, an integrated approach to the issues raised by increasingly complex representations of social identity Explores the psychological implications and applications of new forms of social and cultural diversity Includes research from a diverse range of scholars that covers a broad spectrum of sub-disciplines Discusses how the applications of multiculturalism and diversity research can encourage more positive intergroup relations Develops an in depth understanding and appreciation of the value of social and cultural diversity
Breast cancer is the third most common cancer in women with about 22% of all cancer incidences arise from breast cancer. Moreover, it is still the leading cause of cancer mortality in women, compare to the other common cancers. Recent several biomarkers have been associated with the disease and these include protein and genetic markers. Due to the absence of both rapid and sensitive diagnostic tools for breast cancer, it cannot be detected in its early stage which is the most crucial point in treatment. Although the disease has available and widely investigated markers, the breast cancer has scarcely been studied with biosensing technology. This book provides theoretical and practical information about electrochemical DNA biosensors for detection of genetic mutations of breast cancer.
Genetic marker is any trait representing genetic differences between individual organisms or species. Generally, they do not represent the target genes themselves but act as ‘signs’ or ‘flags’. Genetic markers that are located in close proximity to genes may be referred to as gene ‘tags'. Such markers themselves do not affect the phenotype of the trait of interest because they are located only near or ‘linked’ to genes controlling the trait. All genetic markers occupy specific genomic positions within chromosomes(like genes) called ‘loci’.There are three major types of genetic markers: morphological(also ‘classical’ or ‘visible’) markers which themselves are phenotypic traits; biochemical markers, which include allelic variants of enzymes called isozymes; and DNA(or molecular) markers, which reveal sites of variation in DNA.DNA-based markers offer several advantages over traditional phenotypic and biochemical markers. DNA-based markers are less affected by age, physiological condition of samples and environmental factors. DNA –based molecular markers have acted as versatile tools have found their own position in various fields like taxonomy, physiology, embryology,etc.
Lymphoma is a neoplasm of the immune system cells and their precursors. Despite their common origin from bone marrow, these tumors exhibit a wide range of immunological and genetic characteristics, which reflect the diversity of their normal counterpart cells. Lymphoid malignancies arise from both B and T cell compartments of the immune system. The cytogenetic analysis of lymphomas is hampered by the low yield and poor quality of metaphase spreads. More recently however, the application of techniques such as FISH and PCR, for which culturing of tumor cells is not a pre-requisite, has improved the characterization of lymphomas at the genetic level. Chromosomal translocations have an established role in diagnosis, prognosis, and prediction of response to treatment in haematologic and lymphoid malignancies. FISH, the assay of choice for localization of specific nucleic acids sequences in native context, is a 20-year-old technology that has developed continuously. Over its maturation, various methodologies and modifications have been introduced to optimize the detection of DNA and RNA.
This work is a review of Ancient DNA''s place and utility in the field of physical anthropology. The work begins with a discussion of the methods and techniques used in studying ancient DNA, concentrating on those techniques most relevant to anthropology.These steps trace the process from likely places to find ancient DNA to procuring the DNA, extracting it, and determining the DNA''s authenticity. The next part of the work reviews the history of ancient DNA and the types of research questions that ancient DNA can help answer. The last part of the work utilizes the concepts and ideas from the first two sections to form two case studies on the use of ancient DNA. The first study examines the use of ancient DNA in studying the colonization of the Pacific and demonstrates the utility of a multi-disciplinary approach when using ancient DNA. The second case study looks at how ancient DNA has changed and broadened our understanding of the Neanderthals.