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The object of this book is to present the more important experimental results and theories relating to the electrolytic conductance of citric acid in solvent mixtures. Here, the measurements of viscosity, density and conductivity of Citric acid on aqueous DMF and DMSO at different temperatures. Limiting molar conductance, dissociation constant, Walden product, energy of activation have been calculated to detect solute – solute, solute- solvent and solute- solvent interaction. To explore the new insight of solute and solvent interactions in the solutions this book will stand as land mark. It contributes in the rapidly advancing knowledge of solution chemistry.
Citric acid is one of the most important organic acids in the foods and pharmaceutical industries, citric acid had extracted from natural resources specially citrus fruits, then citric acid was begin to produced with using Aspergillus niger. This study aim to use Aspergillus niger to produce citric acid by screening some strains which can produce citric acid and screening some media which used for citric acid production, then to reach the maximum citric acid production were studied some factors affected on citric acid production. We study the effect of immobilized the spores with calsium algenate, and use this immobiliezd spores as an inoculum to produce citric acid. The possibility of citric acid production was 51.1 g/L in fermentor by the selected stain No, 2, meduim which containing (g/L): sugar cane molasses 272, ammonium phosphate 2, phosophoric acid 0.3 ml, magnesium sulfate 0.2, pH 5.5, at 30?C, after eight days of fermentation.
The book contains methods of hydrolysis of starch and optimization of reducing sugar yield of potato starch hydrolyzate. Comparative studies of both submerged and surface fermentation methods of production of citric acid and Optimization of citric acid by varying five most important factors that affect citric acid production through the use appropriate optimization tools are also embedded in the book.
Citric acid is a tri carboxylic organic acid is the most important acid produced by fermentation used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. The present work deals with determination of optimum growth conditions for citric acid production by submerged fermentation by using strain of A.niger MTCC662 respectively. Isolation, screening and mutated the A.niger strain induced by UV irradiation, diethylsulphate and Co60 by providing different types of media and the submerged fermentation was carried out under various growth parameters like temperature, pH and media of Sorghum malt as substrate. Strain improvement studies for maximum production of citric acid obtained after the fermentation. By using the response surface methodology has been optimized the production of citric acid. These variables were further optimized using a 24 full factorial CCD (Central Composite Design) and a second order polynomial model equation was obtained.
The worldwide demand of citric acid is about 6?105 tons per year. Citric acid, with an estimated annual production of 500,000 tons, is produced almost exclusively by fermentation with Aspergillus niger and widely used in food, chemical, pharmaceutical and other industries. Keeping in view production of citric acid was investigated in submerged fermentation using shake flask fermentation. Maximum product yield was achieved under optimum methanol concentration (1.5 %) and ethanol concentration (1.0%) which shows enhance improvement in citric acid production compared to the control strain without any lower alcohols treatment. The work done in the current study is a major contribution for optimization of different fermentation parameters for citric acid production, however same process parameters may also be useful for production of different organic acids and enzymes in submerge fermentation system.
Citric acid is a tri carboxylic organic acid, soluble in water with pleasant taste and is the most important acid used in the food industries. The present work deals with determination of optimum growth conditions for citric acid production by submerged fermentation technology using Wild strain of Aspergillus Niger. The Fermentation is carried on by providing various kinds of growth conditions like different temperatures, pH and different combinations of media of Paddy and Sorghum and the combination at which the yield of Citric acid is maximum is determined as optimum conditions for Citric Acid production. By using the Response Surface Methodology we can optimize the production. The increasing use of Citric acid in a variety of industries has demanded a steadily increase in citric acid production. Recently because of its easy biodegradability, this organic acid has also found a ready acceptance in the detergent industry in place of phosphates and in the removal of sulfur in stack gases a process applicable to power stations. If we produce citric acid by malted grains, it will be economically feasible
Citric acid is one of the major ingredients in food, beverages, pharmaceutical preparations and detergents. This book is a compilation or concise report on the research work done by researchers from the Harare Institute of Technology, Bindura University of Science Education, University of Zimbabwe and the National University of Science and Technology in isolating citric acid producing Aspergillus niger strains from Zimbabwean selected sources.
In this study hyper-production of citric acid Aspergillus niger was carried out using agro-industrial residues as carrier substrates in solid state fermentation (SSF) of sucrose molasses medium. It was concluded from this study that banana stalk was a good carrier substrate among the six substrates (Corncobs, corn stover, wheat straw, wheat bran and sugarcane bagasse) used for citric acid production in SSF of molasses medium and SSF gave higher citric acid production as compared to liquid state fermentation (LSF). Mutants of Aspergillus niger were produced through UV irradiations, Ethyle methane sulfonate (EMS) and Ethidium bromide (EB) for different time periods and Among the different mutants selected using selective marker, EB treated mutant Aspergillus niger EB-3 (treated for 90 minutes) was the best mutant for enhanced production of citric acid. Moreover, citric acid production by the mutant could be substantially enhanced to 112 mg/mL by careful optimization of the SSF parameters and by the addition of different metabolic inhibitors and metal ion complexing compounds.
The aim of this study is to optimize the production of Baker’s yeast, vinegar, Citric acid, Ethanol and ?-amylase using dates of low commercial value as the basal fermentation medium. The results of this study showed that the optimal Baker’s yeast production was obtained with a dilution rate of 0.22 h-1. As for the Ethanol production, the optimum yield obtained was 131.0 g/L under optimum conditions of an incubation period of 72 h, inocula content of 4 % (w/v), sugars content of 180.0 g/L and ammonium phosphate content of 1.0 g/L. As for the acetic fermentation, under optimal conditions, temperature of 30 °C, an initial acidity of 1.2 % and an aeration of 2VVM, the productivity of vinegar obtained is 0.0476 g/100 ml/h. Also, the obtained results show that it is possible to obtain by continuous fermentation each 36 h, the vinegar with an acidity ranging between 72.0 to 85.0 g/L. Concerning the Citric acid production, the cumulative effect of temperature (30 °C), methanol content (3 %), initial pH (3.5) and ammonium nitrate concentration (2.5 g/L) during the fermentation process of dates syrup did increase the citric acid production to 97.0 g/L.
In this work besides the usual analytical methods and techniques for testing of small and large components in wine are used also mechanisms that include the use of new methods and techniques of examination. Wines that were used during examination are: Vranec from Stobi vinery from vintage 2009, 2010 and 2011, wine with finished fermentation in bundle and placed in cistern as well as wine from the same sort from 2011, which is stored in bundle of 1000 L. The following parameters were examined: Total acid, pH, Lactic acid, Acetic acid, Malic acid, Citric acid, Glucose-Fructose as reducing sugars, Total sugars, The volatile acids, Percentage of alcohol with ebulliometer, Total and free SO2, Poliphenols, Anthocyanins, Colour intensity and shade i.e coloration of the “Vranec” wine from Stoby Winery.
This work aimed to study the effect of different inhibitors i.e. ascorbic acid, cysteine and citric acid and some amino acids i.e. glycine, valine, methionine and phenylalanine on inhibition of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity mainly responsible for browning process in fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. Also identifying the mechanisms of each inhibitor under various conditions. The results confirmed that ascorbic acid and cysteine act as competitive PPO inhibitor at low concentrations (0.84–7.15mM) and react at high concentrations (? 1.5% ) in the assay solution with the resulted quinone to form a colorless adducts (cysteine) and reduction the quinone to diphenole while citric acid worked only as non-competitive inhibitor. Identification the mechanisms of each ascorbic acid and cysteine inhibitors under various conditions. Also, this study was conducted on oxidative stress by factors affecting anthocyanin color changes (pH, PPO and hydrogen peroxide).The UV-Vis spectra of extract anthocyanins were recorded to find the suitable pH for preserving the color. However, for inhibition of fresh-cut okra dipped in 0.5% solution of cysteine, ascorbic or calcium chloride for 5 min.
Specific properties of bentonite clay have made them a valuable material in different process industries. Easy availability, low price and their effectiveness are the major factors which made fuller’s earth, an adsorbent in cooking oil manufacturing industry. Textural characteristics of fuller’s earth play an important role in its performance. These characteristics can be modified by treatment with organic acids, which is the safest method for enhancing the properties of fuller’s earth. Major motivation of this research is to increase the adsorption capacity of fuller’s earth by modification in its properties by organic acid treatment. Organic acid treatment assures the safety of equipment and safety of the labor as well. Four organic acids are used which are recommended best for activation. These acids are acetic acid, phosphoric acid, citric acid and oxalic acid. Clay is treated with all of these four acids and the acid which generates more active sites in clay is the best recommended acid for activation.
The presented manuscript comprises the behavior of aluminium alloys upon the exposure of organic acid and it also shows the inhibition behavior of various organic and inorganic inhibitors. For the determination of corrosion and inhibition, weight loss and potentiostatic methods are used. Tafel graphs, are also plotted and conductance of the solution is measured for its support. It was observed that inhibition efficiency was decreased on increasing temperature. Langmuir adsorption isotherm was found to obey by all the inhibitors.
Brand WLXY Model WL-3205 Quantity 1 Set Color Black Material Electrolytic capacitor English Manual / Spec No Other Features Electrolytic capacitor with the function of power supply filter decoupling signal coupling and time constant setting DC blocking etc. in power supply circuit or intermediate frequency low frequency circuit. Certification N/A Packing List 20 x 50V 1uF electrolytic capacitors 20 x 50V 4.7uF electrolytic capacitors 20 x 50V 10uF electrolytic capacitors 20 x 50V 47uF electrolytic capacitors
200Pcs 15 Value Electrolytic Capacitor Assortment Box Kit Features: Miniature aluminium electrolytic capacitors with a radial style case Suitable for a wide range of electronic applications needing a cost effective high capacitance solution. Standard General Purpose Temperature range: -40 C to +105 C Detailed parameters refer to the tables Package included: 200 x Electrolytic Capacitor