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This book provides statistical and biometrical procedures to analyze genetic diversity and genotype by environment interaction. It is organized into seven chapters: Introduction, Literature review,Geographical patterns of morphological variation, Biochemical diversity analysis, Genetic diversity analysis, Genotype by environment interaction and Summary and conclusion. Literature review deals with phenotypic diversity analysis, Morphological characters as markers, Biochemical composition, DNA molecular markers, Genotype by environment interaction and stability analysis. Geographical pattern of morphological variation will help to study organization of genetic resources based on morphological diversity. Biochemical diversity analysis will asses variation in biochemical variability of genetic resources for selection and hybridization. Genetic diversity analysis will assist for organization of genetic resources and identification of parents for crossing. Genotype by environment interaction compares univariate, bivariate and multivariate stability statistics. This book will be a practical guide for graduate students and researchers.
Livestock plays an important role in economy of Pakistan. Different livestock animals used for for meat, milk, draught, and sports. The genetic data of different cattle breeds like Red Sindhi and Tharparkar is not available which needs to be established for their genetic identification, conservation and to find their genetic diversity among them. This work provided the genetic data which is very helpful for determining the genetic diversity of cattle population, breed identification, animal forensic and paternity cases and making effective breeding policies and conservational activities in future. This work is very helpful about breed characterization of two cattle breeds (Red Sindhi and Tharparker) and developing understanding about genetic architecture of cattle breeds as present study conclude that six SNPs were present in both breeds, four private to Red Sindhi and 22 were private to Tharparkar.
Genetic diversity is our heritage, efficient germplasm collection and its evaluation is the key factor to address the problem and to identify the wealth of the important germplasm growing in our close vicinity. In the present study a total of 40 genotypes of Phaseolus vulgaris (L) were collected from plane and mountainous areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan, and investigated for morphological and biochemical genetic diversity. An appreciable variation was observed for seed colour and 100 seed weight. SDS-PAGE was carried out and 37% genetic disagreement was observed in the collected lines with percent disagreement ranging from 0.00 – 0.71. To fractionate and explain the level of genetic diversity, the electropherogram was further divided into three zones and showing 37%, 36 % and 39% genetic disagreement respectively and subsequently analyzed through cluster analysis (how to use computer software for cluster analysis “see tutorial for cluster analysis” narrated in this book). Cluster analysis exhibited moderate level of genetic diversity; to explore the gene pool of Pakistani common bean more collection is required for genetic improvement.
Ethiopia considered as the secondary center of genetic diversity in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The high genetic diversity observed in Ethiopian barley landraces was due to its diverse environmental and soil condition. Barley landraces from Ethiopia used as a source of genes for resistant to disease and agronomic traits all over the world. International research center such as ICARDA also used Ethiopian germplasms in their breeding program to developed different cultivars well adapted to the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In any breeding program, the study of the existing genetic diversity within their base population is a key factor for their success. Therefore, understanding the genetic architecture of the base population related to diversity and understanding the interrelationship of yield components will be crucial. It helps to design appropriate crossing program by selecting parents with divergent genetic background that meet the breeding objective. It is also important to develop core collection. So it is valuable reference for the researchers, conservation specialists, development workers, graduate and undergraduate students.
This book contains an investigation carried out in twenty-eight durum wheat genotypes to find out the genetic diversity through morphological and molecular markers evaluated under randomized block design with three replications. The observation were recorded on ten quantitative traits viz., days to earhead emergence, grain filling period, days to maturity, plant height (cm), number of effective tillers per plant, spike length (cm), number of spikelets per spike, peduncle length, 1000 grain weight (g) and grain weight per plant (g).Different genetic parameters like genetic diversity, genetic advance, path coefficient analysis etc. were estimated. Twenty-eight genotypes were divided into seven clusters in genetic divergence study using SSR markers. The clustering pattern did not show any relationship between geographic distribution and genetic divergence as genotypes from the same origin scattered in different clusters and the genotypes of different areas were grouped in the same cluster.
This book is about “Genetic Diversity and Genetic Origin of Weedy Rice growing in rice fields In Districts of Kurunegala and Matara in Sri Lanka”. Weedy rice (Oryza sativa f. spontanea), one of the most troublesome rice weeds, first reported in the Eastern Province of Sri Lanka in early 1990s and at present spreading into many rice growing areas. Weedy rice (WR) variable in height, panicle form, grain size, awn length, flag leaf, and growth duration and is a serious problem because of high competitiveness with cultivated rice, variable dormancy and shattering nature of grains. The study were to determine the genetic diversity and differentiation of WR populations from Matara and Kurunegala Districts in Sri Lanka and to explore the possible origin of these WR populations by comparing their genetic relationships with rice varieties (O. sativa) and wild rice (O. nivara and O. rufipogon).
In Sub-Saharan Africa, as in Senegal, breast cancer is the second after that of cervical in women. However, although most of the studies on breast pathology concern cancer, the overwhelming majority of breast lesions, palpable or not are benign. Thus this research is done in order to understand the impact of diversity and genetic evolution of the D-loop in benign breast lesions in Senegalese women. The variability of the D-loop was investigated and the results revealed a significant presence of specific variants for breast benign tissue. The C150T mutation was associated with protection to the presence of benign breast tumors when G247A implicated in an increased risk. Patients of mitochondrial haplogroup L would be significantly more susceptible to these benign breast lesions. Finally, a significant correlation was associated with haplotypes C309CC and witnessed the D310, which respectively constitute increased risk groups and susceptible to the contraction of benign breast lesions. All these results allowed to have a global view on the influence of pathogenic mutations on diversity and genetic evolution of the D-Loop observed in Senegalese patients with benign breast tumor.
Commonly, relative performance of different genotypes varies in different environments(GEI). This means there exists genotype by environment interactions. This is a major challenge to breeders to fully understand and obtain genetic control of variability. Hence, measuring and understanding GEI should be an essential component of variety evaluation. In Ethiopia there are only few studies regarding GEI and stability of linseed varieties. But further investigation regarding GEI is crucial to accumulate more scientific evidence for any anticipated changes like climate irregularities. Besides identifying yield components that have positive association with yield under different environmental conditions is important since this might provide better bases of progeny evaluation. Therefore, this work contains relevant information on the patterns of GEI for yield and yield related traits and methods to identify widely and specifically adaptable varieties of linseed. It also has information on the association among yield and yield related traits of linseed. The recommendations of the work can also be taken as reference for further breeding strategies of linseed and other related crops.
Linseed is recognized as one of the important industrial crops due to high iodine value and quick drying property of its oil. However, production of linseed is not keeping pace with increasing demand of its products. The cultivation of linseed is restricted mostly to marginal and submarginal lands under limited supply of fertilizer and irrigation, resulting in low crop yield. Among the agro-techniques that can increase its productivity, judicious application of nutrients, particularly the NPK and Sulphur play the important role. Studies have demonstrated the importance of Sulphur nutrition and interaction between S and NPK in optimizing seed and oil yield in oilseeds. The proper selection of genotype is equally important in realizing the high yield of linseed. Therefore, in view of the above facts, the authors of this book carried out an investigation to study the effect of NPK, sulphur and variety on growth, yield and quality of irrigated linseed varieties and compiled the research findings in this book titled “Nutrient Management of Irrigated Linseed Cultivars” which can be used as a reference book by the student and researcher in the galaxy of oilseed research.
Groundnut is one of the most important oil and food crop of the world. However, it is considered to be an unpredictable legume, mainly because of its cultivation in rainfed areas and constant efforts are being made to improve the crop productivity under rainfed conditions. In this direction, studies on genetic diversity, correlation and path are expected to help the groundnut breeders in development of high yielding groundnut varieties for rainfed situation. In the present study, quantitative assessment of genetic divergence had resulted in grouping of the 50 rainfed and drought tolerant groundnut genotypes into nine clusters, independent of geographical region and habit group. The genotypes, K 1725, K 1719, K 1717, K1718 and K 1848 were identified as promising genotypes for rainfed cultivation. Variability, character associations and path studies revealed 100 kernel weight, pod and haulm yields to be effective selection criteria for kernel yield improvement in groundnut under rainfed conditions. The book is expected to aid the Groundnut crop breeders and also post-graduate students of plant breeding discipline in their research projects on rainfed groundnut crop.
This book is about genetic variability and stability analysis in fenugreek.For a successful breeding programme, it is necessary to know the genetic variability present in population and performance of genetic material in different environmental condition. As there is less information available regarding fenugreek crop,I have tried to give information by including different statistical analysis methods.I have tried my best to make it more simple by using graphs and tables.
Eutropiichthys vacha were collected from two rivers namely Ganga (Patna, India) and Kosi (Madhepura,India) for population genetic and phylogenetic studies. Five OPA primers were used to generate the fragment patterns from the samples collected. Polymorphisms within and between populations were assayed using 5 random primers, and 45 loci were amplified ranging from 250 to 2,000 bp. The percentage of polymorphic loci was found 51.1% and 55.6% for Ganga and Kosi populations, respectively. Total genetic diversity was 0.2173,and the average coefficient of genetic differentiation was 0.0958. The highest level of genetic diversities within population as well as lower between populations suggested that lower differentiation rate between populations. Gene flow between Ganga and Kosi populations was 4.7. Nei’s unbiased measure of genetic identity and genetic distances of two populations were found 0.9606 and 0.0402, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis by RAPD showed one common cluster between two wild populations (Patna and Kosi) though they are quite distant from each other but belongs to same drainage system.
Antibiotic resistance of the bacteria has become the most important issue all over the world. This is not only important in medical area but is also questioned in food production industry. Enterococci are more beneficial effective bacteria in food industry due to their esterolytic, lipolytic activities in cheese, sausage and other fermented foods. In addition, they are used as starter cultures in fermented foods and used as probiotic in human and animal health. However, they are not considered GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) microorganisms in food production sector because of their acquired antibiotic especially vancomycin resistance abilities and virulence genes as well as being the causes of untreatable nosocomial infections in hospital settings. This book provides, genetic diversity between food and clinical based enterococci to understand dissemination of vancomycin resistance. In addition, the correlations between virulence genes and vancomycin resistance have analysed in this book. The analysis may help some light on the role of food enterococci related dissemination of virulence genes and vancomycin resistance for professionals both food and clinical microbiologists.
In order to investigate the diversity management literature, this book is interested in evaluating a company''s diversity approach compared to theoretical suggestions. Therefore, hitherto existing findings concerning diversity and diversity management will be centralized and the theoretical models of Robin Ely, David Thomas as well as Taylor Cox will be illustrated in more detail. Additionally, available arguments for and against a culturally heterogeneous workforce will be opposed in order to get a comprehensive idea of the subject matter. The scientists'' models will be evaluated according to their practicability and feasibility in the “real” economy, which is why the diversity strategy of Sandoz (part of Novartis International) will be explored and compared to the theoretical assumptions. Proleptic, Sandoz implements various recommendations of literature and provides various different working models in order to attract the best talents.
Biodiversity is the contraction of biological diversity. Plant-biodiversity is the most important component of total biodiversity. ‘‘Biodiversity” is the variability among living organisms from all sources including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part. It includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystem. Plant-biodiversity is the plant genetic wealth of a country. Economically and genetically important materials selected by both human and nature, adapted in the environment are the components of homesteads. Homesteads are the in situ conservation sites of wide range of plant-biodiversity. Environmental variations offer unique opportunity to select appropriate genotypes at different regions. Diversity of genes within plant species increases its ability to adapt in adverse environment. Any decrease in genetic variability may lead to ecosystem instability. Plant biodiversity is instrumental to cycling and recycling of nutrients and thereby achieving the stability of the ecosystem.